Understanding cloud-based VLE from the SDT and CET perspectives: Development and validation of a measurement instrument


Most of the current literature has focused on undergraduates’ VLE acceptance.

We studied the instructional effectiveness of the cloud-based Frog VLE.

The roles of Self Determination Theory and Channel Expansion Theory were examined.

575 respondents were randomly selected across the nation in two waves of survey.

Rigorous validation via SEM, expert panels, Q-sort, pre & pilot-test & fieldwork.
With the emergence of the cloud computing technology, virtual learning environment (VLE) may play an imperative role in promoting instructional effectiveness of ubiquitous learning. However, the existing literature on VLE has been mostly based on the acceptance of VLE from the perspective of the undergraduate students. There is a dearth in studies on the VLE instructional effectiveness from the K-12 teachers’ perspective, the effects of Self Determination Theory and Channel Expansion Theory. Existing VLE instruments have not been rigorously validated and do not consider the importance of cultural differences. This research aims at creating and rigorously validating an instrument to study the cloud-based Frog VLE’s instructional effectiveness in the Malaysian cultural setting. The robustness of the instrument was validated using structural equation modeling, expert panel, Q-sort, pre-test, pilot-test and fieldwork study. This research may offer a parsimonious instrument to evaluate the instructional effectiveness of the Frog VLE for subsequent studies contributing to theory building in the IS literature.

Interactive learning environments; Multimedia/hypermedia systems; Distributed learning environments; Improving classroom teaching

Predicting adult learners’ online participation: Effects of altruism, performance expectancy, and social capital


Adult learners’ online participation was captured by three different dimensions.

Lower degree holders, females, and working learners were found to be more active online.

The unique predictive values of altruism, performance, and social capital were examined.

Perceived learning benefits were the most significant predictor of online participation.

Norms of reciprocity and sense of belonging enhanced online participation, but not trust.
Learners’ socio-demographic characteristics, personal traits, and performance expectancy are frequently employed to interpret online participation among members in virtual, higher education, and professional settings, but not in adult education contexts. Furthermore, the social capital framework has scarcely been used to explain online participation in educational settings, despite its prevalence in virtual contexts. The present study aims to uncover the unique predictive value of altruism, perceived learning benefits as a measure of performance expectancy, and social capital with regard to adult learners’ online participation in addition to socio-demographic variables. A questionnaire was administered and completed by 181 adult learners following a blended learning program in Flanders (Belgium). Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that working learners, lower degree holders, and females are the keenest participants in online participation. We also found that performance expectancy outweighed altruism in explaining online participation. Only two dimensions of social capital, namely sense of belonging and norms of reciprocity, significantly predicted online participation. Based on these findings, pedagogical and research implications are discussed.

Performance expectancy; Social capital; Online participation; Adult education

Social media and women’s clothes shopping online

Study reveals that there has been a rapid rise in the women’s clothes shopping online process. The US alone returned a result of a rise by 67 percent in women’s clothes shopping online. It has also been established by surveys conducted that the main catapulting force behind this trend has been the social media sites. Till recent social media had been considered only a liability, but a near 180 degrees turn has taken place off late. The social media has also been predicted to give a rise by 74 percent to sales of clothes and apparels in the years to come.

The mobile device share

The process of Women’s clothes shopping online can broadly be divided into those who do so using their mobile and those who use their laptops or desktops. The study reveals that by 2017, the sales figures would touch 25 percent of the annual sales for those conducted over the mobile device. Apps made for such purchases are hitting the market by a dime to a dozen.

The role of the social media

Retailers are reaching the consumers, the shoppers easily via the social media sites and forums. The number of people being accessed is near infinity through this process. Creating a user friendly or buyer friendly environment through the same forums makes wise decision by the retailer for selling their products. Another reason for the rise of women’s clothes shopping online process and its association with the social media is the practice of women discussing their dress sense with each other. The social media forums are the best platform for them to discuss these details and form opinions of which line of clothing or apparel would be best suited to them. The younger people are more drawn to these forums and driven by it.

Promotional emails or advertisements

Retailers have also started pushing their products and specially clothes via the media of emails or placing their promotional notices on these social media sites and get noticed by the women’s clothes shopping online group of people. Study has shown that there has been a rise by about 33 percent of women who had been influenced by such promotional offers for their purchases on line. Sites like YouTube, instagram, and face book cater for a large percentage of the women’s clothes shopping online process.

Specific clothing items purchased online

Mainly T-shirts or casual wear is what the online shoppers usually go for, as per study. The reason for this can easily be pinned to the fact that such dresses do not require perfect fitting and therefore things like physical trial of the dress does not occur.

Other reasons for rise in women’s clothes shopping online process

Ease of shopping, variety of clothes available for selecting from. Carrying out comparative study of clothes that can be bought are the other main reasons why there is a rise in women’s clothes shopping online group. All in all, there is a trending of women who like to shop for their clothes online rather than going to mall or retail store in person.

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